Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Expectant Mothers
Ever heard of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)? In India, recent findings from the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI) reveal that GDM is more common than we might think, with rates ranging from 10-14.3%. And get this: in urban spots, it’s even higher at 17.8%, while in semi-urban and rural areas, it’s 13.8% and 9.9%, respectively. This isn’t just about numbers; it’s about the health of moms-to-be and their little ones
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a diabetes type developed during pregnancy. It occurs when the body is unable to produce and use enough insulin to meet the increased demands for pregnancy. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, regulates blood sugar levels. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that interfere with the normal action of insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. If left untreated, gestational diabetes pose risks for both the mother and the baby.
In this article, Gynaecology doctor from Delhi’s best gynaecology hospital UK Nursing Home, explains Gestational Diabetes with its complications and treatment for expectant mothers and newborns.
What is Gestational Diabetes:
Gestational Diabetes is a form of diabetes that crops up for the first time during pregnancy, affecting how your cells use sugar, also known as glucose. Similar to other types of diabetes, it leads to elevated blood sugar levels.
In most cases, blood sugar levels return to normal after delivery. However, having had gestational diabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on. This means keeping a closer eye on your blood sugar levels even post-pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is typically diagnosed between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy.
While any pregnant woman develops gestational diabetes, certain factors increase the risk, such as a family history of diabetes or being overweight.
In India, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is higher among women with a family history of diabetes and those with a higher body mass index (BMI).
Easy Diagnosis through OGTT
Its diagnosis involves an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), where the expectant mother drinks a glucose solution, and blood sugar levels are measured at specified intervals.
Impact on Mother and Baby:
- Untreated gestational diabetes lead to complications such as preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy.
- Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes may be at risk for macrosomia (large birth weight), respiratory distress syndrome, and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) after birth.
Symptoms of GDM
Gestational diabetes often doesn’t exhibit noticeable symptoms. However, some women may experience the following:
- Excessive Thirst and Hunger: Feeling unusually thirsty and hungry, even after eating.
- Frequent Urination: Needing to pee more often than usual.
- Fatigue: Persistent tiredness and lack of energy.
- Blurred Vision: Vision may become blurry for some women.
- Nausea and Vomiting: Similar to morning sickness.
When to consult a Gynaecologist in Delhi?
If your initial screening test indicates high blood sugar levels, consult your Gynaecology specialist or reach out to a leading gynae hospital nearby for further evaluation. Or if you notice symptoms like excessive thirst, frequent urination, persistent fatigue, blurred vision, or nausea, seek medical advice promptly.
Treatment of Gestational Diabetes in Delhi:
- Monitoring Blood Sugar Levels: Regular monitoring is essential to track blood sugar levels. Your doctor will surely recommend a glucose meter to measure levels at home.
- Healthy Eating: Adopting a balanced diet is a must thing. Focus on whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins. Limit the intake of sugary and processed foods.
- Regular Exercise: Engaging in moderate physical activity, such as walking or swimming, helps control blood sugar levels. The exercise must be chosen as per the prescription or knowledge of the gynaecologist who knows your condition well
- Medication or Insulin: Doctors can also give medication or insulin to manage blood sugar levels. It’s essential to follow the prescribed dosage and instructions only.
- Healthy Lifestyle Choices: Maintaining a healthy weight through proper nutrition and regular exercise reduces the risk of gestational diabetes.
- Early Prenatal Care: Early and consistent prenatal care allows doctors to monitor and manage any potential risk factors effectively.
- Balanced Meals: Aim for a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of food groups, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and dairy products.
- Limit Sugar and Processed Foods: Minimize the consumption of sugary beverages, sweets, and processed foods, as they can cause rapid spikes in blood sugar levels.
- Regular, Small Meals: Instead of large meals, opt for smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day to help maintain stable blood sugar levels.
- Fiber-Rich Foods: Include fiber-rich foods like whole grains, legumes, and vegetables, as they can help regulate blood sugar levels.
- Hydration: Stay well-hydrated by drinking plenty of water. Limit caffeinated beverages and sugary drinks.
Individual dietary recommendations may vary,
Consult good Obs doctors and experienced gynaecologists at top Hospital in Vikas Puri Delhi now